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Negative bias in people with depression is temporary

The tendency to have an enhanced response to negative facial expressions is common in people with depression. The findings of a new study show that treatment can reduce this bias. People with depression can be highly sensitive to negative events. Past studies have found that these individuals can recollect negative words and identify sad facial expressions more accurately than those not living with depression. These findings fall into the emotional information processing category. A new study, appearing in Biological Psychology, has investigated whether a similar pattern occurs in a different form of information processing. Automatic information processing refers to cognitive processes that occur with little effort or attention from the person. For example, walking or driving a car. Researchers at the University of Finland, wanted to see whether the negative bias in emotional information processing happened automatically and whether the findings changed over time.It is important to study the automatic processing phase because the brain constantly encodes stimuli that are outside of the conscious attention, says doctoral student Elisa Ruohonen. Following the methods of earlier studies, the researchers chose pictures of facial expressions as the stimuli to examine whether a relationship exists between brain responses to sad expressions and the outcome of cognitive therapy. We aim to find brain response markers that could be used to predict treatment response, Ruohonen states, adding: "It is important to take into account the heterogeneity of depression and individual factors that could affect treatment response.

Credits: www.medicalnewstoday.com

Parkinson s: Ultrasound technology may relieve symptoms

A new study shows that pulses of minimally invasive ultrasound waves improve the quality of life for people living with Parkinson disease by immediately and significantly reducing tremors. The study involved a minimally invasive procedure that offers significant benefits over some other treatments that carry higher risks. Dr. Federico Bruno, a radiologist in the Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences at the University of Aquila in Italy, led the research. The procedure uses a technology called magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) that works by focusing sound energy beams to eradicate a small part of the thalamus in the brain. Although a procedure called deep brain stimulation has been successful in some people, it carries potential risks, such as bleeding and infections. Deep brain stimulation requires a surgical procedure, which involves a surgeon implanting a small electrode into the brain. The implant connects with a pacemaker-like device in the chest. The device works by relieving tremors on the opposite side of the body to the treatment point. For example, tremors on the right side of the body respond to the treatment on the left side of the brain, and vice versa. The researchers believe that there are additional opportunities for research in the area. Possibilities include treating both sides of the thalamus, a range of other neurological disorders, and brain tumors. Credits: www.medicalnewstoday.com