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What material is best for homemade masks?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recently updated their guidelines on the use of face masks during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic.The updated guidelines recommend wearing a cloth covering or a mask when it is difficult to maintain physical distancing, such as when shopping. But research into whether reusable cloth masks can slow the spread of the new coronavirus has resulted in contradictory findings. In their study, the team experimented with various samples of cotton, chiffon, flannel, silk, spandex, satin, and polyester on their own and in combination. he researchers found that a sheet of tightly woven cotton of 600 threads per inch — plus two sheets of chiffon, made from polyester and spandex, seemed to make the most effective combination, filtering out 80–99% of the particles, depending on their size. Other combinations that perform well, according to the researchers, are tightly woven cotton plus natural silk or flannel, and cotton quilt with cotton-polyester batting. The researchers explain that combinations involving a fabric with a tight weave, such as cotton, and one that can hold a static charge, such as silk, are likely effective because they provide a double barrier: mechanical and electrostatic. Yet they emphasize that for these masks to be truly effective, they have to fit very snugly. (credits: www.medicalnewstoday.com)

Raw dog food contains drug resistant bacteria, study finds

Researchers suggest that raw-frozen dog food contains bacteria that are capable of resisting mainstream antibiotics. This poses a risk of the transmission of these antibiotic resistant bacteria from dogs to humans, constituting an international public health risk, say the authors of the study. The World Health Organization (WHO) describe antibiotic resistance as ;one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today. The WHO note that although bacteria can naturally become resistant to antibiotics over time, the misuse of antibiotics by humans is speeding the process up. This effect is happening either from the way we take antibiotics or from the way we use them in animal populations. According to Dr. Ana Raquel Freitas from the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Portugal, and an author of the study, These raw-frozen foods are supposed to be consumed after being thawed and could at least be cooked, to kill these drug resistant and other bacteria. Although these foods seem to be regulated, regarding their microbiological safety by EU authorities, risk assessment of biological hazards should also include antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or genes besides only establishing the presence of bacterial pathogens, such as salmonella. (credits: www.medicalnewstoday.com)