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Red meat’s link to cancer

Nutrition and dietary habits play pivotal roles in a wide range of health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Red meats and processed meats have each received a fair amount of attention in this regard. Both have been implicated in cancer risk, but how they exert their influence is up for debate. As the authors of the latest study explain:

Although various mechanistic explanations have been proposed, [such as a] high energy/fat diet, N-nitroso, nitrates, nitrites, heme iron, [and] compounds produced by gut microbiome or during cooking, none seems to be specific to red meat or dairy.” The authors point to tentative evidence that N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) might be a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Neu5Gc is a carbohydrate, or sugar, present in foods derived from mammals, and it is abundant in red meat and dairy. It occurs at low levels in some fish but is absent from poultry. Humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc, but when we consume it, small amounts accumulate on cell surfaces. When immune cells encounter this nonhuman material, it triggers the production of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. Studies have shown that humans have a wide range of these antibodies. Scientists have also found evidence that long-term exposure to these antibodies promotes inflammation and cancer in animal models. However, they have yet to identify any clear effect of eating mammalian products on levels of these antibodies. As these anti-Neu5Gc antibodies travel around the body, they bump into Neu5Gc on cell surfaces, sparking inflammation. Experts believe that this, in turn, exacerbates cancer, because cancer cells tend to have higher levels of Neu5Gc on their surfaces. In one study, researchers demonstrated an association between levels of circulating Neu5Gc antibodies and colorectal cancer risk. However, the level of antibodies was not associated with red meat intake. Now, the latest study has set out to unpick the relationship between a person’s diet and their levels of Neu5Gc once and for all.

(Credits: www.medicalnewstoday.com)

Reactive attachment disorder

RAD is a rare condition in which a child or adolescent experiences difficulties forming attachments with others. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition (DSM-5), RAD is the result of experiencing neglect or abuse during early childhood. RAD can develop in children who do not form a predictable and nurturing bond with a trusted parent or caregiver. This may happen as a result of:

*growing up in an overcrowded orphanage

*frequently changing foster homes

*having a parent or caregiver who has mental or physical health issues

*being taken away from a primary caregiver after establishing a bond with them

*experiencing long periods of hospitalization

* Being unable to form early emotional bonds can cause a child to stop engaging with others emotionally and to develop behavioral problems.


RAD tends to develop in early childhood and typically affects children and adolescents. However, the symptoms may also extend into adulthood for some people. Without treatment, RAD can continue into adolescence and adulthood. Older individuals may have difficulties forming and maintaining close friendships and romantic relationships. They may also experience related mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression. Treatment for RAD is available at all ages, though early intervention may help reduce the risk of complications. The treatment will vary according to a person’s life stage, but it typically involves some kind of talking therapy

(Credits: www.medicalnewstoday.com)