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Effect of antioxidants on lung cancer

A few years ago, scientists in Sweden sparked a heated debate when they published research suggesting that taking antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin E, could make cancer more invasive. Their revelations challenged the belief that antioxidants can help fight cancer. The new studies, which the researchers carried out using human tissue and mice, reveal how lung cancer cells use antioxidants to withstand oxidative stress and thrive. Both studies focus on the effect that reducing oxidative stress has on a protein called BTB domain and CNC homolog 1 (BACH1). It appears that reducing oxidative stress through antioxidants can raise the stability of BACH1 and boost its accumulation in lung cancer cells. "We hope these findings help to dispel the myth that antioxidants like vitamin E help to prevent every type of cancer," says Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Ph.D. Previous studies have shown that approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancers flourish because their cells have acquired one of two types of mutation that promote antioxidant production. The new U.S. study investigated these mutations. The new findings show that the aggressive metastasizing induced by antioxidants can be blocked by stopping the production of BACH1 or by using drugs that suppress the breakdown of sugar. “For lung cancer patients, taking vitamin E may cause the same increases in cancer's ability to spread as the NRF2 and KEAP1 mutations that our team has linked to shorter survival," says Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Ph.D.

(Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com)

Artificial intelligence plays a better role in detecting cancer than humans.

Researchers have used a deep-learning algorithm to detect lung cancer accurately from computed tomography scans. The results of the study indicate that artificial intelligence can outperform human evaluation of these scans. As an alternative to chest X-rays, healthcare professionals have recently been using computed tomography (CT) scans to screen for lung cancer. In fact, some scientists argue that CT scans are superior to X-rays for lung cancer detection, and research has shown that low-dose CT (LDCT) in particular has reduced lung cancer deaths by 20%. However, a high rate of false positives and false negatives still riddles the LDCT procedure. New research may safeguard against these errors. A group of scientists has used artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to detect lung tumors in LDCT scans. "Radiologists generally examine hundreds of 2D images or 'slices' in a single CT scan, but this new machine learning system views the lungs in a huge, single 3D image. AI in 3D can be much more sensitive in its ability to detect early lung cancer than the human eye looking at 2D images. This is technically '4D' because it is not only looking at one CT scan but two (the current and prior scan) over time.", says Dr. Mozziyar Etemadi.

(Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com)