Daily News

How to program bacteria against cancer?

Some tumors thrive and spread because their cells send out a "don't eat me" signal that makes the immune system leave them alone. Now, scientists from Columbia University in the city of New York have shown that it is possible to program bacteria to switch off the don't eat me signal and induce an anti-tumor immune response. Cells that send don't eat me signals are common not only in tumors but also in healthy tissue. This presents a challenge to developers of immunotherapies that target the signal. The team suggests that the treatment works because it does two things. First, the presence of live bacteria induces local inflammation in the tumor. This summons the immune system. The second thing that the treatment does is trigger immune cells, such as macrophages, to ingest the tumor cells because it switches off their CD47 don't eat me signal. In turn, this immune response primes "tumor-infiltrating T cells" that then migrate to distant metastases. "Thus, engineered bacteria may be used for safe and local delivery of immunotherapeutic payloads leading to systemic anti-tumor immunity.", explain researchers.

(Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com)

Stroke risks linked with very low levels of bad cholesterol

Whether it is low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol — also known as "bad" cholesterol — raising heart disease and early death risk or high levels of "good" cholesterol increasing the risk of heart attacks and cardiovascular death, excessive cholesterol seems to link inextricably to poor health. New research examines the data of almost 100,000 participants and finds that excessively low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Now, a new, large-scale study appearing in the journal Neurology confirms the idea that too little LDL cholesterol may increase the risk of bleeding stroke in both men and women. Results showed that The likelihood of having a bleeding stroke was 169% higher among the participants whose LDL cholesterol levels were below 50 mg/dl than among those whose levels were 70–99 mg/dl. As is true with many things in nutrition, moderation and balance [are] key when deciding the optimal target level of LDL cholesterol. You can't go to either extreme — too high or too low", Says Xiang Gao, associate professor of nutritional sciences.

(Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com)