Cardiac problems are a leading reason for death irrespective of gender. Researchers say that, one way to determine a person's risk of heart disease, stroke, or heart attack is by looking at their coronary artery calcium (CAC) levels. The scientists used data from almost 2,500 people to track CAC and heart structure differences between young adulthood and middle age. Women made up 57% of the group, and 52% of participants were white. "We looked at early adulthood to middle age because this is a window in which we can see abnormalities that might not be causing symptoms, but could later increase the risk of heart problems," explains study co-author Dr. Henrique Turin Moreira. The study authors also note that these abnormalities were more significant among black people. For these people, every one-unit change in their CAC score correlated with quadruple the increase in their left ventricular mass. "Prior studies from this cohort have also shown that a better risk factors profile in young adulthood is associated with much lower CAC and therefore, these results further highlight the importance of primordial prevention and risk factor modification in early adulthood.", says Dr. Salim Virani, a co-author of the AHA's 2018 cholesterol guidelines.